Construction Periferica virtuale non validating validation of a virtual learning object for the teaching of peripheral venous vascular semiology. Methodological study, whose participants were experts in Nursing, Computer Science and Nurse undergraduate student. For the construction and validation of the Object, six steps were followed: The Object was built having the characteristic of valuing student's autonomy and approached contents of anatomy and physiology, clinical reasoning and clinical examination.
Concerning the ergonomic and pedagogical evaluations, the Object obtained high acceptance rates The Object is suitable to be used as an alternative source of teaching peripheral venous semiology. The teaching-learning process in higher education, including nursing, has been influenced by the expansion of online education. This tendency allows the search for new knowledge in digital learning environments, encouraging the active participation of the student, with a model of collaborative, active and transforming education.
The traditional method of teaching in semiology is considered fragmented and reductionist, with predominance of banking education. Previous studies have demonstrated efforts in the teaching of semiology and clinical reasoning through methods alternative to traditional ones, including practical guides, 5 courses in virtual learning environments, 6 Periferica virtuale non validating and educational games, 3 simulations 7 and virtual learning objects.
Promotion of educational dialogues among students in social networks were also found on literature.
Virtual Learning Objects VLO are defined as a variety of didactic material images, videos, games, websites, etc. Researches involving this resource in nursing education have demonstrated significant results, allowing student reflection and self-criticism. Among the organic systems observed in the data collection by the nurse, the peripheral venous system is highlighted, in which veins that drain the head, neck, upper and lower limbs are evaluated.
The evaluation of the peripheral venous system allows the identification of clinical complications that may compromise the health status of the patient, including phlebitis, venous thromboembolism, chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcer. Alteration of the jugular veins may suggest elevated central venous pressure or the presence of aneurysms.
In view of the need for new resources in the teaching of peripheral venous semiology and the benefits of using virtual objects, this study is justified in order to construct and validate a virtual learning object for the teaching of peripheral venous semiology to undergraduate nursing students, the SEMIOVAPE.
In the educational design stage, the target audience, the objectives, area, subarea and content worked, teaching-learning strategy, task types, degree of interaction, definition of work plan, activities and student and teacher roles were defined.
The present object is not intended to replace the teacher the classroom classes of semiology, but to complement the content seen in the classroom, serving as a method of study for the student.
In the computational modeling stage, the SEMIOVAPE project and its layout were defined, including the multimedia resources to be "Periferica virtuale non validating," material elaboration, the definition of color standards and visual programming.
In the object of the present study, images constructed by computer professionals under the supervision of the researcher were used. The third stage of construction, called the implementation of the environment, involved the development of the with the combination of the schematization and the theoretical content.
Thus, the format of the object was made in HTML so that, after validation, it would be made available in the discipline of Semiology and Semio-Technique in the virtual learning environment Moodle, for students' access. Both stages involve expert evaluation and are intended to ensure that VLO is made available properly. The pedagogical evaluation involved an analysis of the coherence of the virtual learning object contents with the target audience and its adequacy to Periferica virtuale non validating teaching-learning proposal.
This stage was carried out with three clinical nurses, with at least five years of experience, using an adapted instrument that evaluates the objectives, content, clarity, ease of use, attractiveness, grammar, and relevance, as well as having a space for comments and suggestions.
For this stage, two adapted instruments 25 were used, one for each professional area. The tool for information technology experts covered the following topics: The instrument of ergonomic evaluation delivered to the nursing experts contained the evaluation of the following aspects: In both instruments the experts should express whether they agreed with the items presented, ranging from "strongly disagree", "disagree", "agree", "strongly agree" and "do not know".
The last step was the evaluation of the usability, by the target public, Nursing graduates who had already completed the discipline of Semiology and Semio-Technique offered by the Institution of origin. A convenience sample was used by the snowball method. The items of the instrument were formed by multiple choice questions, with answer options depending on the item, with the exception of the open question related to the difficulties in navigation.
The invitation to the experts and the target public was made by the main researcher, through which the collection was scheduled based on the availability Periferica virtuale non validating the participant. On the scheduled day, the researcher presented the objectives of the research and delivered the Term of Free and Informed Consent TFICcomposed of two signed copies. In the educational design stage, from the selected themes, an expansive search was made in bibliographies of the area of anatomy, physiology, semiology and clinical reasoning.
Materials used included recently published books and scientific articles.
To the left, the main menu. In the topic of anatomy and physiology, are recalled basic aspects about the blood vascular system, the particularities of the veins "Periferica virtuale non validating" their functions. In this stage, the student finds five subtopics: The latter exemplified in Figure 2. In the topic of clinical complications, we find the pathophysiology of four conditions that affect the venous system: In each condition, images are arranged that allow the student's easy understanding.
The topic of data collection portrays the importance of its steps, the interview and the physical examination.
The topic of the interview exposes the contents necessary to perform the anamnesis, including stages of the interview, analysis of symptoms and specific interview of the venous system.
At the physical examination stage, the student has access to the contents of the semio-technical inspection of the Periferica virtuale non validating veins and inspection and palpation of the "Periferica virtuale non validating" veins of the upper and lower limbs, including special maneuvers, in addition to a classification of veins present in the Brazilian literature.
At the end of each item, multiple choice questions are inserted about the contents addressed in each phase of SEMIOVAPE, followed by the template containing the correct response. The questions were elaborated in order to allow the self-evaluation of the student, valuing their autonomy and critical sense about the learning process.
The topic "Relevance" addresses the clinical application of the contents learned in the object. The object has a complementary reading topic, in which the student finds reading suggestions that supplement and deepen the content addressed. The "Help" module is available in the main menu and the student can access it at any time to clarify doubts about its use and obtain technical information about the object. This tool makes it possible to navigate between slides by clicking boxes created by the author.
In addition, the function which allowed to move to the next screen was blocked and, thus, it was impossible the linear navigation, stimulating the student's autonomy and creativity. The color scheme used was selected in conjunction with a nursing professional. In the virtual object, shades of blue predominated, which were used in the main menu, submenus of topics Periferica virtuale non validating titles of screens. In anatomy and semiology books, the veins are illustrated in blue, differing from arteries, which are represented by the red color, justifying the choice of color pattern.
The object works offline in browsers, however in order for it to be implemented in the Moodle platform, the device must be connected to the internet. Therefore, in order to access the VLO, the student must have it made available by a teacher and a device connected to Periferica virtuale non validating internet.
In addition, the virtual object worked on different electronic devices, such as computers, notebooks, mobile phones and tablets.
However, for standardization in the object evaluation stage, the notebook equipment was used. The stages of pedagogical evaluation and ergonomic evaluation occurred concomitantly during the month of April Three experts participated in the ergonomic and pedagogical evaluation stages, all of which work in clinical nursing, female, with an average age of 38 years and an average of Concerning the pedagogical evaluation of content, the average of the answers shows the agreement with the VLO, expressed by the categories "strongly agree" There were no responses in the "disagree", "strongly disagree" and "do not know" categories.
Ergonomic assessment by the experts was satisfactory, expressed by the data of the categories "strongly agree" There were no responses to "disagree", "strongly disagree" and "do not know". Regarding the comments and suggestions, one suggested the correction of typing, evidencing the lack of space between one word and another; one expert recommended the standardization of repeating expressions; two experts suggested the addition and reallocation of hyperlinks in the "Test your knowledge" questions, so that the student had the possibility to return to the content.
Still, two experts commented that the size of the source used could be larger. All the suggestions presented in the instrument of ergonomic and pedagogical evaluation of nursing were accepted by the authors. Three other experts, all males, with an average age of The average answers of the experts for the ergonomic evaluation categories were: In this step, there were suggestions for adding titles in some screens, placing abbreviations, adjusting the return of screens, reorganizing submenus, standardizing screens and correcting typing errors.
The authors accepted all these suggestions. In addition, one expert suggested "Periferica virtuale non validating" placement of arrows on the screens, which would direct the student to the next content. However, it is a VLO of free navigation, which stimulates the creativity of the student; thus, these arrows could induce the student to follow a sequence, which would impair the precept of free navigation.
All participants considered the virtual object very useful and would certainly recommend it to a colleague. The information
Periferica virtuale non validating in the virtual learning object contents was classified by all the participants as "very interesting", "very necessary", "very clear" and "very informative".
Regarding the contribution, all the participants considered that the object will certainly bring some assistance to their role as a nurse. The Periferica virtuale non validating audience has shown interest in accessing virtual learning objects that address specific procedures and distinct areas of semiology. However, it was mentioned the interest in the use of such strategy in all the contents addressed in nursing teaching.
The results obtained in this study showed that the virtual learning object has aspects that can help the teacher in the teaching of the clinical examination, complementing the presence and theoretical teaching in Nursing, like other objects constructed in previous studies.
The fulfillment of methodological steps in the construction of an educational material, in this case, SEMIOVAPE, allowed the selection of "Periferica virtuale non validating," structuring of theoretical content and object modeling. As found in the literature, the construction process following steps ensures a better quality in the planning and development of VLOs.
The construction of the object in a non-linear way allowed the student to offer free and flexible navigation for the content, adjusting it to the rhythm of each student's study, making the object motivating and interesting.
The educational design and modeling stages allowed the pedagogical delineation of the object, including content choice, pedagogical model used and didactic organization of the subjects addressed, in order to encourage student autonomy during navigation. Previous study Periferica virtuale non validating raised as a limiting factor the necessary financial resources for the construction of educational technologies.
Thus, we recommend that the programs be used in further studies in the construction of innovative educational technologies. The evaluation by nursing and informatics experts with experience in the area allowed the detection of errors and implementation of improvements in the VLO.
If educational material is presented directly to the target audience without the appreciation of experts, content or design errors could discourage navigation or provide access to inappropriate content.
In this sense, the prior validation of the VLO by specialists allowed it to be properly made available to its target audience. It was noted the importance of updating the selected references, standardizing the screens to facilitate navigation, adequate font size and content organization in a non-linear way.